New York - London - Athens - Oslo



Jan 31, 2013
AD Valorem - means 'at value'. A rate or tax on the freight based on the value of goods.

Aframax - An Aframax ship is an oil tanker with capacity between 80,000 metric tons of deadweight (DWT) and 120,000 DWT. Aframax class tankers are largely used in the basins of the Black Sea, the North Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the China Sea and the Mediterranean. Non-OPEC exporting countries may require the use of Aframax tankers because the harbors and canals through which these countries export their oil are too small to accommodate very-large crude carriers (VLCC) and ultra-large crude carriers (ULCCs). The term is based on the Average Freight Rate Assessment (AFRA) tanker rate system.

Allision - The act of striking or collision of a moving vessel against a stationary object.

Alongside - A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered "alongside" are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship's tackle so that they can be loaded.

Articles of Agreement - The document containing all particulars relating to the terms of agreement between the Master of the vessel and the crew. Also known as ship's or shipping articles.

Astern - A backward direction in the line of a vessel's fore and aft line; behind. If a vessel moves backwards it is said to move astern; opposite to ahead.

Ballast - Heavy substances loaded by a vessel to improve stability, trimming, sea-keeping and to increase the immersion at the propeller. Sea water ballast is commonly loaded in most vessels in ballast tanks, positioned in compartments right at the bottom and in some cases on the sides, called wing tanks. On a tanker, ballast is seawater that is taken into the cargo tanks to submerge the vessel to a proper trim.

Baltic Dry Index (BDI) - Is a number issued daily by the London-based Baltic Exchange. The index provides "an assessment of the price of moving the major raw materials by sea. Taking in 26 shipping routes measured on a timecharter and voyage basis, the index covers Supramax, Panamax, and Capesize dry bulk carriers carrying a range of commodities including coal, iron ore and grain."

Baltic Exchange - A self regulated London exchange serving worldwide interests. It is the world's premier maritime market for ship chartering and sale and purchase. The Exchange publishes a range of market information and freight derivatives price settlements.

Bare Boat - Is an arrangement for the hiring of a boat, whereby no crew or provisions are included as part of the agreement; instead, the people who rent the boat from the owner are responsible for taking care of such things. There are legal differences between a bareboat charter and other types of charter arrangement, such as crewed or luxury yacht charter, commonly called time or voyage charters. In a voyage or time charter the charterer charters the ship (or part of it) for a particular voyage or for a set period of time. In these charters the charterer can direct where the ship will go but the owner of the ship retains possession of the ship through its employment of the master and crew. In a bare-boat or demise charter, on the other hand, the owner gives possession of the ship to the charterer and the charterer hires its own master and crew. The bare-boat charterer is sometimes called a "disponent owner". The giving up of possession of the ship by the owner is the defining characteristic of a bare-boat or demise charter.

Barge - Flat-bottomed boat designed to carry cargo on inland waterways, usually without engines or crew accommodations. Barges can be lashed together and either pushed or pulled by tugs, carrying cargo of 60,000 tons or more. Small barges for carrying cargo between ship and shore are known as lighters.

Barge Carriers - Ships designed to carry either barges or containers exclusively, or some variable number of barges and containers simultaneously. Currently this class includes two types of vessels, the LASH and the SEABEE.

Barrel- a standard unit of liquid volume in the petroleum industry equal to 42 U.S. gallons.

B/d- Barrels per day (measure of petroleum production).

Beam - The width of a ship. Also called breadth.

Beneficial Ownership - Designates the owner who receives the benefits or profits from the operation.

Berth Cargo - When a liner cargo vessel accepts extra cargo to fill up the empty space remaining.

Bill of Lading - A document by which the Master of a ship acknowledges having received in good order and condition (or the reverse) certain specified goods consigned to him by some particular shipper, and binds himself to deliver them in similar condition, unless the perils of the sea, fire or enemies prevent him, to the consignees of the shippers at the point of destination on their paying him the stipulated freight. A bill of lading specifies the name of the master, the port and destination of the ship, the goods, the consignee, and the rate of freight.

Boilers - Steam generating units used aboard ship to provide steam for propulsion (and) for heating and other auxiliary purposes.

Bow - The front of a vessel.

Breakbulk - The process of assimilating many small shipments into one large shipment at a central point so that economies of scale may be achieved; to commence discharge of cargo.

Breakbulk Vessel - The process of assimilating many small shipments into one large shipment at a central point so that economies of scale may be achieved; to commence discharge of cargo.

Bridge - Used loosely to refer to the navigating section of the vessel where the wheel house and chart room are located; erected structure amidships or aft or very rarely fore over the main deck of a ship to accommodate the wheelhouse.

Bulk - Cargo shipped in loose condition and of a homogeneous nature. Cargoes that are shipped unpackaged either dry, such as grain and ore, or liquid, such as petroleum products. Bulk service generally is not provided on a regularly scheduled basis, but rather as needed, on specialized ships, transporting a specific commodity. Bulk Carrier - Ship specifically designed to transport vast amounts of cargoes such as sugar, grain, wine, ore, chemicals, liquefied natural gas; coal and oil. See also LNG Carrier, Tanker, OBO Ship; There are various ways to define the term bulk carrier. As of 1999, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea defines a bulk carrier as "a ship constructed with a single deck, top side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces and intended to primarily carry dry cargo in bulk; an ore carrier; or a combination carrier." However, most classification societies use a broader definition where a bulker is any ship that carries dry unpackaged goods. Multipurpose cargo ships can carry bulk cargo, but can also carry other cargoes and are not specifically designed for bulk carriage. The term "dry bulk carrier" is used to distinguish bulkers from bulk liquid carriers such as oil, chemical, or liquefied petroleum gas carriers. Very small bulkers are almost indistinguishable from general cargo ships, and they are often classified based more on the ship's use than its design. A number of abbreviations are used to describe bulkers. "OBO" describes a bulker which carries a combination of ore, bulk, and oil, and "O/O" is used for combination oil and ore carriers. The terms "VLOC," "VLBC," "ULOC," and "ULBC" for very large and ultra large ore and bulk carriers were adapted from the supertanker designations very large crude carrier and ultra large crude carrier.

Bunkers - Fuel for a vessel. The type will vary depending upon the propulsion mode of the vessel. Steamships will use a heavy fuel oil, disuse use a range of fuels from heavy to light, and gas turbines generally use kerosene.

Capesize - Capesize ships are cargo ships originally too large to transit the Suez Canal (i.e., larger than both panamax and suezmax vessels). To travel between oceans, such vessels used to have to pass either the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn. Vessels this size can now transit the Suez Canal as long as they meet the draft restriction (18.91m as of 2008) Capesize vessels are typically above 150,000 long tons of deadweight (DWT), and ships in this class include VLCC and ULCC supertankers and bulk carriers transporting coal, ore, and other commodity raw materials. The term "capesize" is most commonly used to describe bulk carriers rather than tankers. A standard capesize bulker is around 175,000 DWT, although larger ships (normally dedicated to ore transportation) have been built, up to 400,000 DWT. The large dimensions and deep drafts of such vessels mean that only the largest deep water terminals can accommodate them.

Cargo - Freight loaded into a ship.

Cargo Handling - The act of loading and discharging a cargo ship.

Cargo Manifest - A manifest that lists all cargo carried on a specific vessel voyage.

Cargo Plan - A plan giving the quantities and description of the various grades carried in the ship's cargo tanks, after the loading is completed.

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936 (COSGA) - a law enacted in 1936 covering the transportation of merchandise by sea to or from ports of the united states and in foreign trades.

Certificate of Inspection - The document issued by the U.S. Coast Guard certifying an American-flag vessel's compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Charterer - The person to whom is given the use of the whole of the carrying capacity of a ship for the transportation of cargo or passengers to a stated port for a specified time.

Charter Party - A contractual agreement between a ship owner and a cargo owner, usually arranged by a broker, whereby a ship is chartered (hired) either for one voyage or a period of time.

Charter Rates - The tariff applied for chartering tonnage in a particular trade.

C.I.F. - Cost, Insurance, and Freight: Export term in which the price quoted by the exporter includes the costs of ocean transportation to the port of destination and insurance coverage.

Classification Society - Worldwide experienced and reputable societies. which undertake to arrange inspections and advise on the hull and machinery of a ship. A private organization that supervises vessels during their construction and afterward, in respect to their seaworthiness, and the placing of vessels in grades or "classes" according to the society's rules for each particular type. It is not compulsory by law that a shipowner have his vessel built according to the rules of any classification society; but in practice, the difficulty in securing satisfactory insurance rates for an unclassed vessel makes it a commercial obligation.

Clean Service - tanker transportation of refined products lighter than residual fuels.

Clean Ship - Refers to tankers which have their cargo tanks free of traces of dark persistent oils which remain after carrying crudes and heavy fuel oils. These tankers generally carry refined petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene or jet fuels, or chemicals.

Coke Spread - the price differential between price of crude oil, typically MARS, and the value of the refined products produced by that crude oil. This type of refining process requires more sophisticated hardware to run a heavier crude oil.

Complement - The number of officers and crew employed upon a vessel for its safe navigation and operation.

Consignee - The receiver of goods, i.e. a freight shipment, usually the buyer.

Consignor - The shipper of goods, or shipper of a transportation movement.

Contract of Affreightment (COA) - Is an agreement providing for the transportation of a specific quantity of cargo over a specific time period but without designating specific vessels or voyage schedules, thereby allowing flexibility in scheduling. COAs can either have a fixed rate or a market-related rate. An example would be two shipments of 70,000 tons per month for the next two years at the prevailing spot rate at the time of each loading.

Container Terminal - An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed.

Containership - A ship constructed in such a way that she can easily stack containers near and on top of each other as well as on deck. A vessel designed to carry standard intermodal containers enabling efficient loading, unloading, and transport to and from the vessel. Oceangoing merchant ship designed to transport a unit load of standard-sized containers 8 feet square and 20 or 40 feet long. The hull is divided into cells that are easily accessible through large hatches, and more containers can be loaded on deck atop the closed hatches. Loading and unloading can proceed simultaneously using giant traveling cranes at special berths. Container ships usually carry in the range of 25,000 to 50,000 deadweight tons. Whereas a general-cargo ship may spend as much as 70 percent of its life in port loading and discharging cargo, a container ship can be turned around in 36 hours or less, spending as little as 20 percent of its time in port. This ship type is the result of American design innovation. Specialized types of container ships are the LASH and SeaBee which carry floating containers (or "lighters,") and RoRo ships, which may carry containers on truck trailers.

CPI - Consumer Price Index

Crack Spread - The price differential between price of crude oil, typically West Texas Intermediate crude oil (WTI), and the value of the refined products produced by that crude oil.

Crew - The personnel engaged on board ship, excluding the master and officers and the passengers on passenger ships.

Cross Trades - Foreign-to-foreign trade carried by ships from a nation other than the two trading nations.

Crude Oil Carriers - These vessels carry bulk crude oil in tanks. Tankers of less than 100,000 dwt are referred to as either "clean" or "dirty".

Crude Oil Spread - The price differential between two types of crude oil.

Crude Oil Washing - A technique of cleaning tanks in oil tankers.

D&H - Abbreviation for "Dangerous and Hazardous" cargo.

Dangerous Cargo - All substances of an inflammable nature which are liable to spontaneous combustion either in themselves or when stowed adjacent to other substances and, when mixed with air, are liable to generate explosive gases or produce suffocation or poisoning or tainting of foodstuffs.

Dangerous Liquids - Liquids giving off inflammable vapors.

DDC - Destination Delivery Charge, based on container size, that is applied in many tariffs to cargo. It covers crane lifts off the vessel, drayage of the container within the terminal and gate fees at the terminal operation.

Deadweight Factor - Percentage of a ship's carrying capacity that is not utilized.

Deadweight - A common measure of ship carrying capacity. The number of tons (2240 lbs.) of cargo, stores and bunkers that a vessel can transport. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces "light" and the number of tons it displaces "when submerged to the 'deep load line'." A vessel's cargo capacity is less than its total deadweight tonnage. The difference in weight between a vessel when it is fully loaded and when it is empty (in general transportation terms, the net) measured by the water it displaces. This is the most common, and useful, measurement for shipping as it measures cargo capacity.

Deadweight Cargo - A long ton of cargo that can be stowed in less than 40 cubic feet.

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) - the carrying capacity of a vessel when fully loaded.

Demise Charter - A charter in which the bare ship is chartered without crew; the charterer, for a stipulated sum taking over the vessel for a stated period of time, with a minimum of restrictions; the charterer appoints the master and the crew and pays all running expenses.

Demurrage - A fee levied by the shipping company upon the port or supplier for not loading or unloading the vessel by a specified date agreed upon by contract. Usually, assessed upon a daily basis after the deadline.

Density - The weight of cargo per cubic foot or other unit.

Dirty Ship - Refers to tankers that have been carrying crude oil and heavy persistent oils such as fuel oil and dirty diesel.

Disabled Ship - When a ship is unable to sail efficiently or in a seaworthy state as a result of engine trouble, lack of officers or crew, damage to the hull or ship's gear.

Discharges - An essential document for officers and seamen as it serves an official certificate confirming sea experience in the employment for which he was engaged.

Displacement - The weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its contents. Calculated by dividing the volume of water displaced in cubic feet by 35, the average density of sea water.

Double Bottom - General term for all watertight spaces contained between the outside bottom plating, the tank top and the margin plate. The double bottoms are sub-divided into a number of separate tanks, which may contain boiler feed water, drinking water, fuel oil, ballast, etc.

Draft - The depth of a ship in the water. The vertical distance between the waterline and the keel, in the U.S. expressed in feet, elsewhere in meters.

Dry-Bulk Container - A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform.

Dry Cargo - Cargo which is of solid, dry material. It is not liquid or gas, and generally the term excludes cargo requiring special temperature controls.

Dry Cargo Ship - Vessel which carriers all merchandise, excluding liquid in bulk.

Dry Dock - An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with water tight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.

Dual Purpose Ship - Specially constructed ship able to carry different types of cargoes such as ore and/or oil.

DWT - Deadweight tons.

Even Keel - When the draft of a ship fore and aft are the same.

Feeder Vessel - A short-sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central hub port and smaller "spoke" ports.

Flags of Convenience - The registration of ships in a country whose tax on the profits of trading ships is low or whose requirements concerning manning or maintenance are not stringent. Sometimes referred to as flags of necessity; denotes registration of vessels in foreign nations that offer favorable tax structures and regulations; also the flag representing the nation under whose jurisdiction a ship is registered. Ships are always registered under the laws of one nation but are not always required to establish their home location in that country.

Free In Out (FIO) - Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer/shipper.

Freight - Refers to either the cargo carried or the charges assessed for carriage of the cargo.

Freight Forwarder - One who arranges the shipping of goods overseas; Arranges shipments for customers usually break bulk. Does not actually carry the cargo or conduct business for the ship.

Gross Freight - Freight money collected or to be collected without calculating the expenses relating to the running cost of the ship for the voyage undertaken.

Gross Registered Tons - A common measurement of the internal volume of a ship with certain spaces excluded. One ton equals 100 cubic feet; the total of all the enclosed spaces within a ship expressed in tons each of which is equivalent to 100 cubic feet.

Gross Tonnage(GT) - Applies to vessels, not to cargo, (0.2+0.02 log10V) where V is the volume in cubic meters of all enclosed spaces on the vessel.

Grounding - Deliberate contact by a ship with the bottom while she is moored or anchored as a result of the water level dropping.

Hague Rules - Rules governing the carriage of goods by sea and identifying the rights and responsibilities of carriers and owners of cargo. These rules were published in 1924 following an international convention and were subsequently given the force of law by many maritime nations.

Hague-Visby Rules - A set of rules, amending the Hague Rules published in 1968 and subsequently given the force of law by many maritime nations.

Hamburg Rules - Rules governing the rights and responsibilities of carrier and cargo interests which may be incorporated into a contract for the carriage of goods by sea either by agreement of the parties or statutorily. These rules were adopted by the United National Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea in 1978.

Handymax - Handymax or Supramax is a naval architecture term for a bulk carrier, typically between 35,000 and 60,000 metric tons of deadweight (DWT). A handymax ship is typically 150-200 meters (492-656 feet) in length, though certain bulk terminal restrictions, such as those in Japan, mean that many handymax ships are just under 190 meters in overall length. Modern handymax designs are typically 52,000-58,000 DWT in size, have five cargo holds, and four cranes of 30 metric ton lifting capacity.

Handysize - Although there is no official definition in terms of exact tonnages, Handysize most usually refers to a dry bulk vessel (or, less commonly, to a product tanker) with deadweight of about 15,000-35,000 tons. Above this size are Handymax bulkers (typically 35,000 - 58,000 tons deadweight); there is no well-defined or widely accepted size sector below 15,000 tons. Handysize is numerically the most common size of bulk carrier, with nearly 2000 units in service totaling about 43 million tons. Handysize ships are very flexible because their size allows them to enter smaller ports, and in most cases they are 'geared' - i.e. fitted with cranes - which means that they can load and discharge cargoes at ports which lack cranes or other cargo handling systems. Compared to larger bulk carriers, handysizes carry a wider variety of cargo types. These include steel products, grain, metal ores, phosphate, cement, logs, woodchips and other types of so-called 'break bulk cargo'. Handysize bulkers are built mainly by shipyards in Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam, the Philippines and India, though a few other countries also have the capacity to build such vessels. The most common industry-standard specification handysize bulker is now about 32,000 mt deadweight on a summer draft of about 10.0 metres, and features 5 cargo holds with hydraulically operated hatch covers, with four 30 metric ton cranes for cargo handling. Some handysizes are also fitted with stanchions to enable logs to be loaded in stacks on deck. Such vessels are often referred to as 'handy loggers'. Despite multiple recent orders for new ships, the handysize sector still has the highest average age profile of the major bulk carrier sectors.

Harbor Duties - Various local charges against all seagoing vessels entering a harbor, to cover maintenance of channel depths, buoys, lights, etc. All harbors do not necessarily have this charge.

Harter Act (1893) - This U.S. statute refers to merchandise or property transported from or between ports of the United States and foreign ports. Now partially superseded by the US Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of 1936.

Hatch - An opening, generally rectangular, in a ship's deck affording access into the compartment below.

Hawser - Large strong rope used for towing purposes and for securing or mooring ships. Hawsers are now mostly made of steel.

Haz Mat - An industry abbreviation for "Hazardous Material." Helm - A tiller or a wheel generally installed on the bridge or wheelhouse of a ship to turn the rudder during manoeuvering and navigation. It is in fact the steering wheel of the ship.

Hoisting Rope - Special flexible wire rope for lifting purposes, generally being of six strands with 19 wires in each strand and in most cases having a hemp rope at the center.

Hold - A general name for the spaces below the main deck designated for stowage of general cargo. A hold on a tanker is usually just forward of #1 cargo tank. Some newer tankers have no hold.

Hopper Barge - A barge which loads material dumped into it by a dredger and discharges the cargo through the bottom.

Hull - Shell or body of a ship.

ILO - Internal Labor Organization: Based in Geneva, it is one of the oldest components of the UN system of specialized agencies and has been involved over the years in appraising and seeking to improve and regulate conditions for seafarers. In its unusual tripartite way, involving official representatives of government, employer and employee interests, its joint Maritime Commission have had in hand moves on the employment of foreign seafarers to urge the application of minimum labor standards, on crew accommodation, accident prevention, medical examination and medical care, food and catering and officer's competency.

IMDG - International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code: International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. Regulations published by International Maritime Organization (IMO) for transporting hazardous materials internationally.

IMO - International Maritime Organization: International Maritime Organization: Formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), was established in 1958 through the United Nations to coordinate international maritime safety and related practices.

Inert Gas System - A system of preventing any explosion in the cargo tanks of a tanker by replacing the cargo, as it is pumped out, by an inert gas, often the exhaust of the ship's engine. Gas-freeing must be carried out subsequently if worker have to enter the empty tanks.

Inflammable Liquids - Liquids liable to spontaneous combustion which give off inflammable vapors at or below 80 degrees F. For example, ether, ethyl, benzine, gasoline, paints, enamels, carbon disulfide, etc.

Integrated Tug Barge - A large barge of about 600 feet and 22,000 tons cargo capacity, integrated from the rear on to the bow of a tug purposely constructed to push the barge.

Intermodalism - The concept of transportation as a door-to-door service rather than port-to-port. Thus efficiency is enhanced by having a single carrier coordinating the movement and documentation among different modes of transportation.

ISM Code - The International Maritime Organization Assembly adopted the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code) in 1993. On July 1, 1998, the ISM Code became mandatory for passenger vessels, passenger high-speed craft, oil tankers, chemical tankers, bulk carriers, and cargo high-speed craft of 500 gross tons or more. On July 1, 2002, the ISM Code became applicable to other cargo ships and to self-propelled mobile offshore drilling units of 500 gross tons or more. (ISM Code - Chapter IX of SOLAS).

ISPS Code - The International Ship and Port Facility Code adopted by an IMO Diplomatic Conference in December 2002. Measure is designed to strengthen maritime security. (ISPS Code - Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS).

Jettison - Act of throwing cargo or equipment (jetsam) overboard when a ship is in danger.

Jones Act - Merchant Marine Act of 1920, Section 27, requiring that all U.S. domestic waterborne trade be carried by U.S.-flag, U.S.-built and U.S.-manned vessels.

Kamsarmax - A Kamsarmax type bulk carrier is basically a 82,000 dwt Panamax with an increased LOA = 229 m (for Port Kamsar in Equatorial Guinea). The most predominant types of bulk cargo ships are the handymax and the panamax types. Panamax bulk carriers continue to grow in cargo capacity as the pressure of worldwide competition has forced yards to build ships that can carry extra extra cargo. Therefore, the Kamsarmax has been built.

Keel - The lowest longitudinal timber of a vessel, on which framework of the whole is built up; combination of iron plates serving same purpose in iron vessel.

Knot - Unit of speed in navigation which is the rate of nautical mile (6,080 feet or 1,852 meters) per hour.

Laden - Loaded aboard a vessel.

Laid-Up Tonnage - Ships not in active service; a ship which is out of commission for fitting out, awaiting better markets, needing work for classification, etc.

Lash Ships - Lash stand for Lighter Aboard Ship. It is a specialized container ship carrying very large floating containers, or "lighters." The ship carries its own massive crane, which loads and discharges the containers over the stern. The lighters each have a capacity of 400 tons and are stowed in the holds and on deck. While the ship is at sea with one set of lighters, further sets can be made ready. Loading and discharge are rapid at about 15 minutes per lighter, no port or dock facilities are needed, and the lighters can be grouped for pushing by towboats along inland waterways.

Laytime - Time allowed by the shipowner to the voyage charterer or bill of lading holder in which to load and/or discharge the cargo. It is expressed as a number of days or hours or as a number of tons per day.

Lay-Up - Temporary cessation of trading of a ship by a shipowner during a period when there is a surplus of ships in relation to the level of available cargoes. This surplus, known as overtonnaging, has the effect of depressing freight rates to the extent that some shipowners no long find it economical to trade their ship, preferring to lay them up until there is a reversal in the trend.

LCL - Less than Container Load, a consignment of cargo, which is inefficient to fill a shipping container. It is grouped with other consignments for the same destination in a container at a container freight station.

Light Displacement Tonnage - The weight of a ship's hull, machinery, equipment and spares. This is often the basis on which ships are paid for when purchased for scrapping. The difference between the loaded displacement and light displacement is the ship's deadweight.

Lighter Aboard Ship - An ocean ship which carries barges. These barges are loaded with cargo, often at a variety of locations, towed to the ocean ship, sometimes referred to as the mother ship, and lifted or, in some cases, floated on board. After the ocean crossing, the barges are off-loaded and towed to their various destinations. The ocean ship then receives a further set of barges which have been assembled in readiness. This concept was designed to eliminate the need for specialized port equipment and to avoid transshipment with its consequent extra cost.

List - The amount in degrees that a vessel tilts from the vertical.

LLOYD'S REGISTER OF SHIPPING - British classification society.

Classification societies are private companies, often with branches throughout the world, which may be authorised to inspect ships and issue the relevant safety certificates on behalf of the States where ships are registered (so called flag States). In order to grant the initial recognition to those classification societies wishing to be authorised to work on behalf of EU Member States, compliance with the provisions of the directive 94/57/EC must be assessed more effectively by the European Commission together with the Member States requesting the recognition. The Commission has asked EMSA to carry out the technical assessments.

EU recognised classification societies are : American Bureau of Shipping, Bureau Veritas, China Classification Society, Det Norske Veritas, Germanisher Lloyd, Hellenic Register of Shipping, Korean Register of Shipping, Lloyd's Register, Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, Registro Italiano Navale, Registro Internacional Naval, Russian Maritime Register of Shipping. The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) based in London represents 10 of the world most famous societies. The liability of classification societies has been implicated in some of the last maritime incidents.

LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas, or a carrier of LNG

LNG CARRIER - Liquefied Natural Gas carrier, perhaps the most sophisticated of all commercial ships. The cargo tanks are made of a special aluminum alloy and are heavily insulated to carry natural gas in its liquid state at a temperature of -285°F. The LNG ship costs about twice as much as an oil tanker of the same size.

Load Line - The line on a vessel indicating the maximum depth to which that vessel can sink when loaded with cargo. Also known as marks.

Loaded Leg - Subdivision of a ship's voyage during which the ship is carrying cargo.

Long Ton - 2,240 pounds.

Longshoreman - Individual employed in a port to load and unload ships.

LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or a carrier of LPG

L/T - Long tons (2,240 Ibs.)

LWT - Light Weight Ton, the weight of an empty vessel.

Manning Scales - The minimum number of officers and crew members that can be engaged on a ship to be considered as sufficient hands with practical ability to meet every possible eventuality at sea.

Marpol 73/78 - The international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships, 1973, as modified by the protocol of 1978.

Mixed Shipment - A shipment consisting of more than one commodity, articles described under more than one class or commodity rate item in a tariff.

Multipurpose Ship - Any ship capable of carrying different types of cargo which require different methods of handling. There are several types of ships falling into this category, for example, ships which can carry roll on/roll off cargo together with containers.

National Cargo Bureau - A private organization having inspection services performed by the Board of Underwriters of New York and Board of Marine Underwriters of San Francisco and operates in a nationwide basis. It is empowered to inspect cargos of a hazardous nature and issue certificates which have to be approved.

National Flag - The flag carried by a ship to show her nationality.

Nautical Mile - Unit of length corresponding approximately to one minute of longitude at the equator.

Newbuilding - A newly constructed vessel

NYMEX - New York Mercantile Exchange

OBO Ship - A multipurpose ship that can carry ore, heavy dry bulk goods and oil. Although more expensive to build, they are ultimately more economical because they can make return journeys with cargo rather than empty as single-purpose ships often must.

Ocean Waybill - A document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper which serves as a receipt for the goods and evidence of the contract carriage.

Off-Hire Clause - In a time charter, the owner is entitled to a limited time for his vessel to be off hire until such time as the vessel may be repaired or dry-docked.

Off-Load - Discharge of cargo from a ship.

Oiler - An unlicensed member of the engine room staff who oils and greases bearings and moving parts of the main engine and auxiliaries. Most of this work is now done automatically and the oiler merely insures it operates correctly.

Oil Tanker - A ship designed for the carriage of oil in bulk, her cargo space consisting of several or many tanks. Tankers load their cargo by gravity from the shore or by shore pumps and discharge using their own pumps.

Open Registry - A term used in place of "flag of convenience" or "flag of necessity" to denote registry in a country which offers favorable tax, regulatory and other incentives to ship owners from other nations. Open Top Container - A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.

Ordinary Seaman - A deck crewmember who is subordinate to the Able Bodied Seaman.

Ore Carrier - A large ship designed to be used for the carnage of ore. Because of the high density of ore, ore carriers have a relatively high center of gravity to prevent them being still when at sea, that is, rolling heavily with possible stress to the hull.

Ore-Bulk-Oil Carrier - A large multi-purpose ship designed to carry cargos wither of ore or other bulk commodities or oil to reduce the time the ship would be in ballast if restricted to one type of commodity. This type of ship is sometimes called bulk-oil-carrier.

Ore-Oil-Carrier - A ship designed to carry either ore or oil in bulk.

Overtonnaging - A situation where there are too many ships generally or in a particular trade for the level of available cargos.

P&I - Protection and Idemnity, an insurance term.

Panamax - "Panamax" ships are of the maximum dimensions that will fit through the locks of the Panama Canal. This size is determined by the dimensions of the lock chambers, and the depth of the water in the canal. An increasing number of ships are built precisely to the Panamax limit, in order to transport the maximum amount of cargo in a single vessel. Much bulk merchandise, such as grain products, is moved primarily on Panamax (or sub-Panamax) ships. The increasing prevalence of vessels of the maximum size is a problem for the canal. A Panamax ship is a tight fit that requires precise control of the vessel in the locks, possibly resulting in longer lock time, and requiring that these ships be transited in daylight. Because the largest ships cannot pass safely within the Gaillard Cut, the canal effectively operates an alternating one-way system for these ships.

Panamax is determined principally by the dimensions of the canal's lock chambers, each of which is 33.53 metres (110 ft) wide by 320.0 metres (1050 ft) long, and 25.9 metres (85 ft) deep. The usable length of each lock chamber is 304.8 metres (1000 ft). The available water depth in the lock chambers varies, but the shallowest depth is at the south sill of the Pedro Miguel Locks and is 12.55 metres (41.2 ft) at a Miraflores Lake level of 16.61 metres (54 feet 6 in). The height of the Bridge of the Americas at Balboa is the limiting factor on a vessel's overall height.

Pallet - A flat tray generally made of wood but occasionally of steel, on which goods particularly those in boxes, cartons or bags, can be stacked. Its purpose is to facilitate the movement of such goods, mainly by the use of forklift trucks.

Partial Containerships - Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo.

Per Container Rate - Rates and/or changes on shipments transported in containers or trailers and rated on the basis of the category of the container or trailer.

Pilot - A person who is qualified to assist the master of a ship to navigate when entering or leaving a port.

Port of Call - Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic.

Port State Control - The inspection of foreign ships in national ports for the purpose of verifying that the condition of a ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international conventions and that the vessel is manned and operated in compliance with applicable international law.

Product Carrier - A tanker, which is generally below 70,000 deadweight tons and used to carry refined oil products from the refinery to the consumer. In many cases, four different grades of oil can be handled simultaneously.

Propane Carrier - A ship designed to carry propane in liquid form. The propane is carried in tanks with the hold; it remains in liquid form by means of pressure and refrigeration. Such ships are also suitable for the carriage of butane.

Port Charges - General term which includes fees charged to a vessel or a cargo in a port. Usually includes harbor dues, tug boat charges, pilotage fees, custom house fees, etc.

Reefer - Refrigerator ship: A vessel designed to carry goods requiring refrigeration, such as meat and fruit. A reefer ship has insulated holds into which cold air is passed at the temperature appropriate to the goods being carried.

Reefer Box - An insulated shipping container designed to carry cargos requiring temperature control. It is fitted with a refrigeration unit which is connected to the carrying ship's electrical power supply.

Relay - To transfer containers from one ship to another when both vessels are controlled by the same network manager.

Return Cargo - A cargo which enables a ship to return loaded to the port or area where her previous cargo was loaded.

Rolling Cargo - Cargo which is on wheels, such as truck or trailers, and which can be driven can be driven or towed on to a ship.

Ro/Ro Ship - Freight ship or ferry with facilities for vehicles to drive on and off (roll-on roll-off); a system loading and discharging a ship whereby the cargo is driven on and off on ramps. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy access.

Salvage - The property which has been recovered from a wrecked vessel, or the recovery of the vessel herself.

Scrapping - Removing a vessel from transportation service of the world fleet either by conversion to other uses or breaking apart for scrap metal

Seabee - Sea-barge, a barge carrier design similar to "LASH" but which uses rollers to move the barges aboard the ship; the self-propelled loaded barges are themselves loaded on board as cargo and are considerably larger than those loaded on LASH ships.

Seaworthiness - The sufficiency of a vessel in materials construction, equipment, crew and outfit for the trade in which it is employed. Any sort of disrepair to the vessel by which the cargo my suffer - overloading, untrained officers, etc., may constitute a vessel unseaworthy. Self-Sustaining Ship - A containership which has her own crane for loading and discharging shipping containers enabling the ship to serve ports which do not have suitable lifting equipment.

Service Contract - As provided in the Shipping Act of 1984, a contract between a shipper and an ocean common carrier in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a certain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier or conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level.

Shipping Act of 1916 - The act of the US Congress (1916) that created the US Shipping Board to develop water transportation, operate the merchant ships owned by the government, and regulate the water carriers engaged in commerce under the flag of the United States.

Shipping Act of 1984 - Effective June 18, 1984 to provide for confidential service contracts and other items.

Ship's Agent - A person or firm who transacts all business in a port on behalf of shipowners or charterers. Also called shipping agent.

Ship's Articles - A written agreement between the master of a ship and the crew concerning their employment. It includes rates of pay and capacity of each crewman, the date of commencement of the voyage and its duration.

Ship's Stability - The seaworthiness of a ship regarding the centrifugal force which enables her to remain upright.

Spot Voyage - A charter for a particular vessel to move a single cargo between specified loading ports and discharge port in the immediate future. Contract rate ("spot" rate) covers total operating expenses.

Stern - The upright post or bar of the bow of a vessel.

Sternway - The reverse movement of a vessel.

Stripping - Removing cargo from a container.

Suezmax - Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of transiting the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. Since the canal has no locks, the only serious limiting factors are draft (maximum depth below waterline), and height due to the Suez Canal Bridge. The typical deadweight of a Suezmax ship is about 150,000 tons and typically has a beam (width) of 46 m (151 ft). Also of note is the maximum head room - 'air draft' - limitation of 68 meters, which is the height above water of the Suez Canal Bridge. There is also a width limitation of 70.1 meters (230 ft), but only a handful of tankers exceed this size, and they are excluded from Suez by their draft in any case. The canal authority produces tables of width and acceptable draft, which are subject to change. Similar terms of Panamax, Malaccamax and Seawaymax are used for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Panama Canal, the Strait of Malacca and Saint Lawrence Seaway, respectively. Aframax tankers are those with a capacity of 80,000 metric tons of deadweight (DWT) to 120,000 DWT.

Supramax - Is a dry cargo vessel 52,000 dwt.

Tank Barge - A river barge designed for the carriage of liquid bulk cargos.

Tank Cleaning - Removal of all traces of a cargo from the tanks of a tanker normally by mean of high pressure water jets.

Tanker - A tanker is a bulk carrier designed to transport liquid cargo, most often petroleum products. Oil tankers vary in size from small coastal vessels of 1,500 tons deadweight, through medium-sized ship of 60,000 tons, to the giant VLCC's

T.E.U. - Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit (containers): A measurement of cargo carrying capacity on a containership, referring to a common container size of 20 ft in length.

Time Charter - A form of charter party wherein owner lets or leases his vessel and crew to the charterer for a stipulated period of time. The Charterer pays for the bunkers and port charges in addition to the charter hire.

Ton Mile - A measurement used in the economics of transportation to designate one ton being moved one mile. This is useful to the shipper because it includes the distance to move a commodity in the calculation.

Tug - A small vessel designed to tow or push large ships or barges. Tugs have powerful diesel engines and are essential to docks and ports to maneuver large ships into their berths.

Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCC) - Tankers larger than 300,000 dwt. The Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC)/Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCC)'s are predominantly employed on the long voyages between the Middle Eastern countries and the USA or the Asian countries. The VLCC/ULCCs are to a large degree limited from being employed on the short intra-regional voyages because the sheer size of the tanker usually prevents it from entering the small harbors with depth and length restrictions. On short haul voyages where the demand at the destination is rather limited it is much more efficient to ship small cargo sizes thus avoiding long periods of time along the quay and avoiding investing in large storage facilities at the destination.

Unseaworthiness - The state or condition of a vessel when it is not in a proper state of maintenance, or if the loading equipment or crew, or in any other respect is not ready to encounter the ordinary perils of sea.

Vessel Manifest - The international carrier is obligated to make declarations of the ship's crew and contents at both the port of departure and arrival. The vessel manifest lists various details about each shipment by B/L number. Obviously, the B/L serves as the core source from which the manifest is created.

Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC) - Tankers between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt. The Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) is only superseded in size by the Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC). The number of ULCC tankers is very limited (11 ships) and has been declining. See also Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCC).

War Risk - Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war.

Worldscale - An index representing the cost of time chartering a tanker for a specific voyage at a given time. The index is given at Worldscale 100, which represents the price in dollars per ton for carrying the oil at that rate. The negotiated rate will be some percentage of the index value.

Manning Scales - The minimum number of officers and crew members that can be engaged on a ship to be considered as sufficient hands with practical ability to meet every possible eventuality at sea.

Deck Department Licensed

Master (Captain) - Highest officer aboard ship. Oversees all ship operations. Keeps ships records. Handles accounting and bookkeeping. Takes command of vessel in inclement weather and in crowded or narrow waters. Handles communications. Receives and implements instructions from home office.

First Mate (Chief Mate) - In charge of four to eight watch. Directly responsible for all deck operations (cargo storage and handing, deck maintenance deck supplies). Assigns and checks deck department overtime. Ship's medical officer.

Second Mate - In charge of twelve to four watch. Ship's navigation officer. Keeps charts (maps) up to date and monitors navigation equipment on bridge.

Third Mate - In charge of eight to twelve watch. Makes sure emergency survival equipment (lifeboats, life rings, etc.) are in order. Assists other officers as directed.

Engine Department Licensed

Chief Engineer - Head of engineer department. Keeps records of all engine parts and repairs. Generally tends to the functioning of all mechanical equipment on ship.

First Assistant Engineer - In charge of four to eight watch. Usually works from eight to four handling engine maintenance. Assigns duties to unlicensed personnel and monitors and records overtime. Consults with Chief regarding work priorities.

Second Assistant Engineer - In charge of twelve to four watch. On Steam vessels has responsibility for the boilers, on diesels, the evaporators and the auxiliary equipment.

Third Assistant Engineer - In charge of eight to twelve watch. Maintains lighting fixtures. Repairs malfunctioning accessories in living quarters. Assist other engineers as directed.

Deck Department Unlicensed

Boatswain (Bosun) - Receives working orders for deck gang from chief mate and passes them onto AB's and ordinaries. Tantamount to foreman, he is on deck directly supervising maintenance operations.

Ships Chairman (Shop Steward) - In charge of union business for unlicensed personnel. Handles grievances. Able Seamen (AB) - Stands watch, during which he steers the vessel, stands lookout, assist the mate on watch and makes rounds of the ship to insure that all is in order. Also ties up and unties the vessel to and from the dock and maintains the equipment on deck.

Ordinary Seamen (OS) - An apprentice AB, assists AB's bosun, and officers, keeps facilities clean.

Engine Department Unlicensed

Pumpman and Electrician - Qualified Members of the Engine Department (QMED) - Trained in all crafts necessary to engine maintenance (welding, refrigeration, lathe operation, die casting, electricity, pumping, water purification, oiling, evaluating engine gauges etc.) Usually watch standers but on some ships, day workers.

Pumpman (Tankers) - Operates pumps and discharges petroleum products. Maintains and repairs all cargo handling equipment.

Equipment (Liners) - Maintains and repairs cargo handling equipment and also cargo with special handling characteristics.

Wipers - Apprentice QMED. Cleans engine room. Assists officers and QMED's.

Steward Department

Chief Steward - Orders food. Prepares menus. Assists chief cook in food preparation.

Cook and Baker (Chief Cook) - Cooks and bakes.

Steward Assistant - Clean galley and mess halls, set tables, prepare salads, clean living quarters.

Radio Department

Radio Operator - Maintains and monitors radio, sends and receives messages. Often maintains electronic navigation equipment.

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